الجملة

الجملة المركبة في اللغة الانجليزية

الجملة المركبة في اللغة الانجليزية

It consists of two or more simple sentences joined by a coordinating conjunction

حرف عطفlike

 

And
و
Both……and
كلا …… و
Not only ….but also
لَيسَ فقط … لكن أيضاً
As well as
بالإضافة إلى
But
لكن
Yet
رغم ذلك
However
على أية حال
Nevertheless
على الرغم من هذا
Still
ما زالَ
Thus
هكذا
So
لذا
Therefore
لذا
Either….or
أمّا … أَو
Or … otherwise
أَو …  ما عدا ذلك
Neither …..nor
لا …. . ولا

And

تستعمل لربط جمل لها نفس الفاعل أو الفعل أو المفعول
مثال:
  • The boy opened the door . the boy walked into the room
  • The boy opened the door and walked into the room
  • My father was happy . I was happy , too
  • My father and I were (both) happy 
  • I read the letter . I singed it 
  • I read the letter and singed it 

Both – and

تستعمل لربط جملتين فيهما فاعلان لنفس الفعل
  • ALI likes mangoes , AHMED likes mangoes
  • Both ALI and AHMED like mangoes
أو لاجتماع صفتين على مبتدأ واحد
  • She is both rich and beautiful
أو لوجود مفعولين لفاعل واحد و فعل واحد
  • He speaks both English and French .

Not only -but also

  • He listens carefully in class  , he works hard at home
  • He not only listens carefully in class but also works hard at home

As well as

  • He speaks English , he speaks French
  • He speaks English as well as French
  • I as well as he , am clever
  • He , as well as I , is clever
But  / nevertheless
However / yet
لربط جملتين بسيطتين متناقضتين
  • Winter is cold , summer is hot
  • Winter is cold but summer is hot
  • He is blind . he found his way
  • He is blind ( but / nevertheless ) he found his way
 And – then
  • he said a few words . we left
  • he said a few words  ( and ) then we left .
ملحوظة ممكن حذف كلمة and
So
ThereforeThus

كلها تعبر عن نتيجة

  • He was very tired . he could not walk
  • He was very tired , ( so /thus / therefore )he could not walk
  • He was very tired ( consequently )  و لذلك   he could not walk
  • She was sick  . she went to the doctor
  • She was sick ( hence )   لذلك   she went to the doctor
Either….or
Otherwise
للاختيار من بين بدائل
  • You must study hard . you will not get high marks
  • Either you study hard or you will not high marks
  • You either study hard or get low marks
  • You must study hardotherwise you will not get high marks
اذا اجتمع في الجملة فاعلان على فعل واحد فأن الفعل يتبع الفاعل الثاني ( القريب من )
  • Either I or he is to blame
  • Either he or I’m to blame

Neither …..nor

تستخدم لنفى فعلين أو فاعلين
  • He cannot read . he cannot write
  • Ha can neither readnor write
  • He did not come early . he did not stop talking either
  • Neither did he come early nor did he stop talking
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