الجملة

الجملة الخبرية STATEMENT في اللغة الانجليزية

الجملة الخبرية STATEMENT في اللغة الانجليزية

STATEMENT الجملة الخبرية

تحول SAY الى TELL

  • PROTEST – POINT TO – OBJECT – EXPLAIN – COMPLAIN تظل كما هي

تحذف الاقواس و تضع THAT كأداة ربط و مع ذلك يجوز الاستغناء عن THAT

تحول الضمائر حسب الحالة

اذا كان فعل القول SAY في زمن المضارع البسيط أو المستقبل البسيط فأن الازمنة و الظروف و أسماء الاشارة لا تتغير عند التحويل و يكون التغيير فقط في الضمائر

  • HE SAYS , “I USUALLY VISIT MY UNCLE EVERY WEEK”
  • HE SAYS THAT HE USUALLY VISITS HIS UNCLE EVERY WEEK
  • HE SAYS TO US , ” I’M HAPPY “
  • HE TELLS US THAT HE IS HAPPY

عند نقل الكلام في الماضي تحول المضارع الذى قيل الى ماضي

 

WAS
AM
WERE
ARE
HAD
HAVE / HAS
COULD
CAN
WOULD
WILL
MIGHT
MAY
SAW
SEE

 

و يحول الماضي الى الماضي التام HAD + PP

 

HAD BEEN
WAS
HAD BEEN
HAD
MAY HAVE BEEN
MAY BE
HAD BEEN
WERE
MUST HAVE BEEN
MUST BE
MIGHT HAVE BEEN
MIGHT BE

 

كما تحول أسماء الاشارة و ظروف الزمان و المكان عند الضرورة

 

Indirect
Direct
That
This
Those
These
There
Here
Then
Now
That day
Today
That night
To night
The next day
Tomorrow
The day before
Yesterday
The following week / month
Next week / month
The night before
Yesterday evening / last night
Before
Ago
Two days ago
The day before yesterday
In two day’s time
The day after tomorrow

 

 

  • He said , ” it is hot today “
  • He said that it was hot that day
  • He said , ” I took a car “
  • He said that he had taken a car
  • He said to me , ” I went to Tanta with my father yesterday “
  • He told me ( that ) he had gone to Tanta with his father the day before
  • She said to her friend , ” this was my school “
  • She told her friend ( that ) that had been her school

أحيانا لا يقتضى الامر تغيير أزمنة الافعال

داخل الاقواس خاصة أذا ترتب على ذلك اضطراب المعنى .

  • He said , ” my name is Ahmed “
  • He said that his name is Ahmed
  • He said to me , ” my father enjoys good health “
  • He told me that his father enjoyed good health ( but doesn’t now )
  • The teacher said to us , ” the earth is round “
  • The teacher told us the earth is round .

اذا كان الحديث المباشر يحتوى على جملتين خبرتين فنربطهما معا بالعبارة

  • and that / and added that
  • the man said , ” I know that it is wrong . I shall try to do it better tomorrow “
  • the man said that he knew that it was wrong and added that he would try to do it better the next day

قد تأتى جملة he said / said he في أخر الجملة فعند تحويلها الى كلام غير مباشر نبدأ الجملة بـــــــــ he said

  • ” I went to the cinema yesterday ” , he said
  • he said (that) he had gone to the cinema the day before .

اذا أحتوى الكلام المباشر على المنادى فعند التحويل نفترض أن جملة القول هي

(( أسم المخاطب + said to ))

  • ” you can phone me from your office , Ahmed ” , said Alice
  • Alice told Ahmed (that) he could phone her from his office .

اذا بدأت جملة الحديث المباشر بكلمة yes فنحذفها عند التحويل و تحول كلمة said الى

Answered in affirmative بمعنى ( أجاب بالأثبات )

أو agree أو acknowledged بمعنى ( أقـــر )

أو admitted بمعنى ( أعتــــــرف ) أو ( سلم بـــ ) .

  • He said , ” yes , this is my coat “
  • He answered in affirmative (that) that it was his coat  ( he acknowledged / admitted that it was his coat .

اذا بدأت جملة الحديث المباشر بكلمة no نحذفها و تحول said الى

  • Answered in the negative ( أجاب بالنفي ) أو refused ( رفض ) أو denied ( أنكر )
  • He said , ” no , it isn’t .”
  • He answered in negative (that)it was not = ( he denied it to be so )

اذا كانت الجملة المباشرة على صورة تحية

مثل good morning تحول said الى wished

  • He said to me , ” good morning . it is fine today “
  • He wished me good morning and added that it was fine that day

اذا جاءت كلمة وداع مثل good-bye في الكلام المباشر تحول said الى bade

  • He said to me , ” goodbye . I shall see you next week “
  • He bade me goodbye and added that he would see me the following week .

اذا جاءت كلمة شكر في الحديث المباشر تحول said الى thanked

  • He said to me , ” thank you very much “
  • He thanked me very much

اذا جاءت كلمة اعتذار

مثل I’m sorry تحولها الى he apologized

اذا جاءت must , needn’t , mustn’t بمعنى necessity أو الالتزام compulsion لحظة التكلم (مضارع) فتحول الى الماضي في الكلام غير المباشر .

  • Must – had to
  • Needn’t – didn’t have to
  • Mustn’t – wasn’t to
  • He said , ” I must go now “
  • He said he had to go then .
  • He said , ” I needn’t go “
  • He said he didn’t have to go .
  • He said , ” I mustn’t go “
  • He said he wasn’t to go

اذا كان الكلام له علاقة بالمستقبل فيكون التغيير كالتالي

  • Must – would have to
  • Needn’t – wouldn’t have to
  • Mustn’t – wasn’t to
  • He said , ” I must go next week “
  • He said he would have to go the following week
  • He said , ” I needn’t go next week “
  • He said he wouldn’t have to go the following week
  • He said , ” I mustn’t go next week “
  • He said he wasn’t to go the following week

اذا جاءت must بمعنى التأكد أو اليقين

لا تتغير و كذلك mustn’t في حالة المنع أو النهى

  • she said , ” he must be tired “
  • she said he must have been tired
  • he said to us , ” you mustn’t cross the road against the red light “
  • he told us we mustn’t cross the road against the red light .

اذا جاءت جملة come here في الكلام المباشر تتحول الى go there فى الكلام غير المباشر

  • He said to me , ” I shall come here tomorrow “
  • He told me that he would go there the next day .

الافعال الناقصة التالية لا تتغير عند التحويل من كلام مباشر الى كلام غير مباشر

  • He said , ” I would help if I could “
  • He said that he would help me if he could
  • ” You ought to read the instructions ,” said he .
  • he advised me to read the instructions .
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